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Anak Muda dan Aktivisme Digital

Aktivisme berakar dari kata “aktif”—sebuah kata dengan makna yang sangat luas, mulai dari terlibat dalam aksi, partisipasi, sibuk, bergerak, sesuatu yang melibatkan usaha, sampai sesuatu yang menyebabkan perubahan atau berpengaruh. Bentuk aktivisme yang sering dikenal biasanya berupa aksi langsung; seperti kampanye, protes, boikot, demonstrasi, pemogokan, dan lain-lain. Namun, banyak juga bentuk aktivisme yang dapat dilakukan sehari-hari seperti membentuk komunitas, mempromosikan gagasan atau pesan melalui tulisan atau medium-medium kreatif lainnya, menulis surat atau petisi, menghadiri pertemuan atau diskusi publik, dan masih banyak lagi.

Meski ada banyak cara untuk melakukan aktivisme, secara umum kita dapat bersepakat bahwa kita melakukan aktivisme untuk mewujudkan perubahan yang kita inginkan, mulai dari perubahan-perubahan kecil hingga perubahan besar yang mungkin membutuhkan usaha dan dukungan dari banyak pihak. Salah satu cara untuk mencapai tujuan dari aktivisme yang kita lakukan adalah dengan mengajak sebanyak mungkin orang untuk mendukung isu atau masalah yang kita perjuangkan. Untuk mengajak, melibatkan, atau mendapatkan dukungan tersebut, kita dapat menyusun strategi, menggunakan banyak cara, dan memanfaatkan medium yang bisa kita gunakan untuk menyebarkan informasi dan menarik dukungan. Di sisi inilah, teknologi digital memiliki banyak sekali peran dalam aktivisme.

Aktivisme digital dapat dipahami sebagai usaha-usaha untuk menciptakan perubahan sosial di dalam masyarakat dengan menggunakan perangkat atau medium teknologi digital. Meski demikian, seiring berkembangnya teknologi dan semakin intensnya teknologi digunakan dalam kehidupan manusia sehari-hari, definisi aktivisme digital tidak dapat dibatasi hanya pada ruang lingkup pengertian “penggunaan perangkat atau medium digital untuk aktivisme”, tetapi juga aktivisme mengenai masalah-masalah aktual yang muncul setelah teknologi digital semakin marak digunakan di dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari, seperti privasi, sensor dan pemblokiran, kebebasan berekspresi, hak cipta, dan masih banyak lagi.

Aktivisme Digital dan Kegunaannya.

Aktivisme digital yang kita pahami saat ini banyak didefinisikan bersamaan dengan perkembangan dan maraknya penggunaan jejaring sosial seperti blog, Facebook dan Twitter sejak sekitar tahun 2004. Namun, sebenarnya aktivisme digital telah berawal jauh sebelum itu. Di Indonesia, seperti juga di banyak negara di mana media atau kanal informasi dikontrol, disensor atau dikuasai oleh pemerintah, media-media baru seperti blog atau forum diskusi online berfungsi untuk menyebarkan informasi atau berita oleh warga dan menjadi tempat warga berdiskusi dan menyebarkan informasi. Pada tahun-tahun terakhir menjelang kejatuhan rezim Orde Baru di Indonesia, misalnya, internet digunakan untuk menyebarkan informasi-informasi “bawah tanah” karena informasi yang ada di media massa dikontrol dan disensor oleh pemerintah.

Internet juga berguna untuk memperkuat jaringan para aktivis pro-demokrasi dan menumbuhkan solidaritas dukungan bagi gerakan para aktivis tersebut. Lewat mailing list (milis) seperti Apa Kabar Indonesia yang sangat marak pada akhir decade 1990-an, para aktivis serta pendukung gerakan pro-demokrasi ini bertukar berita dan informasi. Penggunaan milis semakin marak karena tiga hal: ketersediaan perangkat keras seperti modem dan PC yang memadai sejak pertengahan tahun 1980-an; kegiatan komunitas di Indonesia yang memulai bereksperimen dalam penggunaan perangkat keras tersebut; dan adanya komunitas-komunitas warga negara Indonesia di luar negeri (terutama pelajar) yang mulai menggunakan email untuk berkomunikasi.1 Pada masa itu, milis Apa Kabar Indonesia bahkan mencapai angka 250,000 pembaca dari 96 negara di seluruh di dunia—salah satu milis Indonesia dengan jumlah pembaca terbesar di dalam sejarah internet.

Aktivisme digital menjadi semakin marak seiring dengan meningkatnya akses masyarakat terhadap jaringan internet, kepemilikan perangkat untuk mengakses internet tersebut, serta terutama maraknya jejaring sosial seperti Facebook dan Twitter. Peristiwa #KoinuntukPrita yang terjadi pada 2009 membuat orang mulai banyak berbicara dan mempertimbangkan peluang dari teknologi dan terutama media sosial untuk aktivisme. Peristiwa ini memungkinkan kita untuk melihat bagaimana teknologi memiliki dampak untuk memperbesar kapasitas suatu aksi atau kampanye menjadi gerakan yang didukung oleh masyarakat luas.

Hal ini sejalan dengan apa yang dituliskan oleh Mary Joyce dalam buku berjudul Digital Activism Decoded: The New Mechanics of Change. Menurutnya, aktivisme digital adalah meluasnya penggunaan teknologi digital dalam kampanye untuk perubahan sosial dan politik. Aktivisme digital juga dapat diartikan sebagai penggunaan media digital dalam usaha-usaha kolektif untuk menciptakan perubahan sosial dan politik. Di dalam buku tersebut, ia juga menyebutkan beberapa manfaat internet bagi aktivisme, yaitu untuk membentuk opini publik, merencanakan aksi, memobilisasi aksi, dan memudahkan aksi-aksi untuk dilakukan secara digital (seperti menandatangani petisi atau berdonasi online).

Namun, apakah aktivisme digital hanya berarti penggunaan teknologi digital secara lebih luas untuk melakukan aktivisme? Kita tahu bahwa kampanye, menyebarkan dan membuat petisi atau berdonasi bukanlah cara-cara yang sama sekali baru atau belum pernah dilakukan di dalam aktivisme sebelum teknologi digital muncul.

Hanya saja, teknologi digital memungkinkan tindakan-tindakan ini menyebar dan membantu tujuan perubahan tercapai secara lebih cepat. Jika demikian, apakah aktivisme digital juga dapat kita lihat dari sudut pandang yang berbeda, yang bukan hanya dilihat dari penggunaan teknologi digital untuk aksi-aksi yang sudah sering dilakukan sebelumnya, tetapi juga inovasi atau cara-cara yang betul-betul baru untuk melakukan aktivisme?

“Sebagai sebuah istilah, aktivisme digital juga disebut dengan banyak sekali istilah lainnya, mulai dari web activism, internet activism, net-roots organizing, slacktivism, clicktivism, atau armchair activism. Masing-masing istilah ini memiliki konotasi yang berbeda-beda—ada yang memiliki konotasi yang positif dan optimis terhadap kemampuan internet dan teknologi digital untuk membuat lebih banyak orang melakukan aktivisme, namun ada juga yang berpendapat bahwa aktivisme yang dilakukan di dalam ruang digital adalah aktivisme yang “semu” dan “malas”.”

Pengertian ‘armchair activist’ di Urban Dictionary adalah aktivis kursi malas (armchair), atau aktivisme yang bisa dilakukan sambil duduk di kursi malas atau bangku kerja, misalnya dengan cara menulis blog atau membuat posting di Facebook tanpa pernah benar-benar melakukan sesuatu tentang apa yang ia post dan melakukan aktivisme yang menuntutnya untuk ‘beranjak’ dari kursi malas.

Lantas dengan beragam pengertian dan sudut pandang mengenai aktivisme digital tersebut, apakah menurut kamu penggunaan teknologi digital dapat membuat lebih banyak orang terlibat dalam perubahan, atau malah membuat semakin banyak orang ‘malas’ sehingga merasa ‘klik’ saja sudah cukup?

 

1 https://rms46.vlsm.org/1/24.html, Hikayat Awal Penggunaan Milis di Indonesia

Tulisan ini disadur dari salah satu modul Kelas Muda Demokrasi Digital (Kemudi)

 

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