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Tantangan Guru untuk Paradigma Baru

Metode pembelajaran yang diterapkan oleh seorang guru sangat memengaruhi daya serap siswa dalam materi yang diajarkan. Guru merupakan sosok di balik layar yang menentukan kualitas siswa dan sekolah. Dengan demikian, barangkali tidak salah bila banyak yang mengatakan bahwa profesi guru memegang peranan yang sangat penting dalam satu bangsa.

Syarat sederhana untuk menjadi guru profesional adalah membuat rancangan pembelajaran sebelum mengajar, tertantang untuk meningkatkan kreativitas, dan tentunya memiliki karakter yang bisa jadi panutan untuk siswa.

Namun, yang terjadi di lapangan sedikit berbeda dari pandangan ideal. Dimana metode pembelajaran yang digunakan oleh guru masih menggunakan cara lama seperti metode ceramah. Guru lebih senang berbicara sepanjang jam pelajaran dan mengharapkan siswa duduk tenang di dalam kelas. Metode ceramah yang terus berlanjut ini, tentu akan membuat siswa lebih jenuh saat mengikuti Proses Belajar Mengajar (PBM).

Metode ceramah telah lama diterapkan di Indonesia, penerapan metode ini ditandai dengan penyajian guru secara lisan kepada siswa di kelas. Pada dasarnya banyak jenis metode pembelajaran yang bisa digunakan oleh guru, misalnya cooperative learning, contextual teaching and learning, problem based learning, dan lain-lain.

Dalam pendidikan konvensional, guru masih banyak berperan sebagai sumber dan penyampai informasi bagi peserta didiknya. Selain itu, karakteristik materinya pun masih dibatasi dengan sumber buku yang terbatas.

Pada dasarnya, metode ceramah menekankan kepada siswa untuk mengingat serta menghafalkan. Siswa hanya memperoleh informasi melalui guru dan minim dalam pengaplikasian materi pelajaran di lingkungan. Alhasil, mereka tidak bisa berpikir kritis terhadap masalah yang dihadapi.

Ada beberapa alasan, kenapa guru masih menggunakan metode ceramah. Pertama, sarana dan sumber pembelajaran kurang memadai. Kedua, jumlah siswa yang diajarkan oleh guru diluar standar. Kapasitas yang diajukan pemerintah dalam satu kelas yakni sebanyak 20 hingga 25 siswa per kelas. Jika dalam keadaan seperti itu, maka guru bisa menggunakan metode ceramah agar proses belajar mengajar lebih kondusif.

Ketiga, materi pembelajaran bersifat hafalan. Metode ceramah memunculkan kondisi yang kurang interaktif, dimana guru cenderung lebih aktif sedangkan siswa berisfat pasif dengan hanya mencatat dan menghafal materi pembelajaran.

Keempat, alokasi waktu dalam pembelajaran terbatas. Ada cakupan materi tertentu yang harus dijelaskan guru dengan alokasi yang sangat luas, metode ceramah adalah cara yang dianggap ampuh untuk mengupayakan agar materi bisa disampaikan langsung kepada siswa.

Guru memegang otoritas penuh terhadap PBM dan menekankan pengetahuan yang wajib dikuasai oleh murid dan kemudian diujikan dalam ulangan dan ujian akhir semester, dengan kata lain proses belajar yang terjadi masih cenderung pasif dan peserta didik masih berperan sangat kecil dalam proses belajar di kelas.

Sebaiknya, para guru harus mengubah paradigma lama itu kepada pembelajaran yang lebih inovatif. Sudah saatnya guru membuktikan kompetensinya dengan menerapkan model pembelajaran yang variatif. Penggunaan media pembelajaran audio-visual yang kreatif, pendekatan pembelajaran yang persuasif, dan  penggunaan bahasa yang komunikatif.

Sehingga pelajaran dapat dikonsumsi dengan baik oleh siswa. Dalam penerapan tersebut, guru harus memiliki landasan dalam pembelajaran yaitu Rencana Perangkat Pembelajaran (RPP) yang telah diatur dan direvisi setiap tahunnya oleh Dinas Pendidikan.

Berdasarkan Undang-undang Nomor 20 tahun 2003 Pasal 36 Ayat 1 dan 2 menyebutkan, implementasi dari tujuan pendidikan ditentukan melalui pengembangan kurikulum yang dilandaskan kepada standar nasional pendidikan dan prinsip diversifikasi sesuai dengan satuan pendidikan, potensi daerah, peserta didik.

Jadi, RPP merupakan pengembangan kurikulum yang telah disusun secara nasional dan akan dikembangkan oleh masing-masing guru sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan kondisi sekolah. Kualitas pembelajaran dari guru akan terlihat beda jika dia tidak menggunakan RPP sebagai bahan rujukan.

Walaupun pemerintah telah melakukan diklat setiap tahunnya guna meningkatkan kualitas guru dalam mengelola kelas, sepulangnya dari diklat bukannya menerapkan apa yang didapatkakan, beberapa guru lebih memilih paradigma lama kembali.

Menjadi guru yang kreatif, menyenangkan, dan berkarakter tentulah memiliki tantangan tersendiri. Kreaktifitas dan inovasi bukanlah sesuatu yang bisa diwujudkan secara instan. Setiap orang memiliki kreatifitas yang kadarnya berbeda sehingga dapat dikembangkan.

Semoga peran pemerintah yang memperhatikan seorang pendidik atau guru mampu mengubah wajah pendidikan di Indonesia menjadi lebih baik. Sehingga pendidikan yang ada saat ini diisi oleh guru-guru profesional.

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Mahasiswa Jurusan Tadris IPA-Fisika Fakultas

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